Types Of Internet Connection

Types Of Internet Connection

Internet is a system of interlinked computer networks that connects devices on a global scale, with the aid of internet protocol suites (TCP/IP). It is a network of private, public, government, academic, business from a local network to the broadest level, linked by a wide array of electronic, wireless and optical network technologies.

Internet Research

Internet research is the process by which we use internet information services, especially free services, from the web or other internet-based services, (like online discussion forums). The internet holds a wide range of information resources and services that can be useful for our day to day activities. This information can be accessed only when there is internet connection.

Internet Connection

This is when individuals and organizations gain access to use the internet on computer and mobile devices, making them connect to internet services, such as email and web services, world wide web (www). Various types of technology are being utilized by internet service providers (ISPs) to render internet services at varying speeds. Internet access is required for conducting internet researches. This is one of the major reason we use the internet.

The growth in internet acceptance, and in its importance as an information provider is directly linked to how much information is carried on the internet, as well as availability of relevant information, and how fast the information available is reached.

Internet has grown from just as much importance as television as it was in 2012 to be the most important source of information with a 3.9 out of a 5.0 scale, next to personal contacts, which has a 4.2 points.

 Types Of Internet Connections

Internet access at the initial stage was not generally available to the public. In 1995, only 0.04% of the world’s population had access to the internet, with the United States of America, making over half of the entire population with internet access.

Our need for better and faster internet connection increases as technology grows. The  connection speeds listed below represents general mean speed to maximum speed as at the time of publication. This is because internet speed changes and it also varies with internet service providers (ISP).

  • ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network: it is the standard international communication network which is used to send data, video, text, and voice messages via digital phone lines. ISDN has a speed range of 64kbps to 128kbps.
  • DSL–Digital Subscriber Line: DSL lines are often referred to as an “Always on” connection. It uses 2-wire copper telephone lines to the premises, so internet service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone lines. ASDL and SDSL, are the two most commonly used DSL, for home subscribers. All types of DSL internet are referred to as xDSL, with a speed range of 128kbps to 9mbps.
  • ADSL–Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: This is the most commonly used type of DSL in North America. ADSL supports a downstream speed of 1.5mbps to 9mbps i.e when receiving data, while it’s upstream rate (the speed when sending data) is from 16 kbps-640kbps. ADSL needs a special modem to work.
  • ADSL+2–ADSL Extension: This provides a faster internet when compared to ADSL, it is an extension to the traditional ADSL. Subscribers must be in close range with the internet provider to receive the ADSL+2 service.
  • SDSL–Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line: SDSL works by sending digital signals through an area of high frequency telephone lines. SDSL has an internet speed of 3mbps. SDSL is known as symmetric due to the data rate, it uses same rate when sending downstream traffic and upstream traffic.
  • VDSL-Very High DSL: is just like a DSL, but it offers fast internet connection over a short distance – the shorter the distance, the faster the connection.
  • Cable-Broadband internet connection: it provides broadband internet connection through the use of a cable modem. It uses TV channel space to transmit. Cable TV uses coaxial cable that provides a broader bandwidth than telephone lines, and accommodate more customers. Cable internet has a speed range of 512kbps to 20mbps.
  • T1-Lines Leased network: They are a popular leased lines option for internet connection among businesses and among internet service providers (ISPs). A T1 line consists of 24 individual channels, each with a speed of 64k bits per second.
  • Bonded T1-Lines: Two or more T1s are bonded to increase bandwidth. When a single T1 leased line provides 1.5mbps, two bonded T1s provides 3mbps. A typical bonded T1 is two T1s, and runs at 3mbps.
  • Optical Carrier 3 (OC-3): Optical carrier level 3 (OC3) specifies the speed of fiber optic networks, and are used to satisfy large networks with large voice, data, video and traffic needs. OC3 has a speed of 155.52 mpbs, an estimated speed of 100 T1 lines

Facts About The Internet

  • According to Google, the internet consisted of five million terabytes of data as at 2010. The number of pages on the internet as of September 4, 2015 was over 45 billion.
  • Out of the seven billion people on earth, more than three billion people are online, as reported by the InternetLiveStats on September 5, 2015. This statistic is expected to grow by 2020.
  • 250 billion emails are sent on a daily basis, with spams making 81%, that means 50 billion emails are being sent by humans daily. The first spam mail was sent in 1978.
  • It took only four years for the internet to reach its first 50 million users, while it took 13 years for television and 38 years for radio to reach the same number of users.
  • 72 hours of video contents are being uploaded on YouTube every two minutes. By the time you finished reading this article, more than 150 million hours of videos would have been uploaded on YouTube. YouTube boasts of one billion users every month, and an average internet user spends four hours on YouTube every month.

There is always an internet connection rate that can meet your internet needs, in terms of bandwidth, cost, reliability and availability and so on and so forth. For instance, fiber optic networks have the properties to provide data for large business organizations, while DSL lines can meet data needs of home subscribers. Internet has grown from just 2400bps to 56kbps rates, as it is for Analog: Dial-Up Internet Access. Today analog lines are being replaced by broadband services (cable and DSL), however, fiber optic is the most suitable for business use.

How to secure a wordpress site

What do sites like Interview Mantra, Bilforsikring, Prepared Marketing, and 1.5 million other WordPress sites have on common? They have all been hacked at one time or someone has tried to hack them. Find out how to secure your wordpress site.

WordPress was developed by Matt Mullenweg in 2003.WordPress is a popular CMS for building a new website for both newbie’s as well as tech nerds, hackers all around the world keep on trying to find new loopholes and vulnerabilities within WordPress to hack it. In fact, now-a-days this is one of the major concerns among new businesses and some of them try to avoid using WordPress for this hack phobia.

WordPress security is often referred to as “hardening”. It is just like the process of adding reinforcements to your castle. It’s all about bolstering the gates and putting lookouts on every tower. But that term doesn’t always allow you to realize the details that go into improving site security.

“8 out of 10 sites included base64 encoding in their themes.”

Siobhan McKeown

Here are some of the ways to secure and make almost impossible for a hacker to hack WordPress.

  1. Use fast and secure hosting 

People always look for the unlimited plan accounts with unlimited space, unlimited bandwidth and unlimited domains for their hosting because they think that it will be cheaper that way. But what they never understand is that what a trap they are falling into. In short, there is nothing unlimited or free in this universe. Not even sun light, it is also going to run out one day one way or another. Big brand companies use the “UNLIMITED” tag to lure newbie users to get them online and after that provide such a pathetic service that they will almost feel forced to upgrade to a more costly VPS server.

  1. Always Change the Default “admin” username

WordPress installation on any server has become so easy nowadays that most of the people just ignore these minor things. No matter whether you use the default WordPress installer or any one click installer that comes with your server control panel, make sure you change the primary admin username to anything else from the default “admin”. This is very important. The reason it is most important is that most hackers use Brute Force Attack tools to randomly guess your username and password for successful login.

  1. Always use a super strong complex password and keep on changing it

 According to report by Global consultancy Deloitte that over 90 percent of user-generated passwords, even those considered strong by IT departments will be vulnerable to hacking. I know everyone knows this and it is a very basic thing, but trust me every hacker use it when it’s needed. Make sure your WordPress admin password contains a combination of Uppercase, Lowercase, Alphanumeric, special characters (e.g. @, #,?), and are at least 12 characters long. In this way, you can give the hacker a real pain to actually decrypt your password. Make your habit to change your passwords at least once in three months.

  1. Disable Directory Indexing and Browsing

On most web servers directory listing has been enabled by default for the much good reason, but after your website development has been completed, just open the .htaccess file present in the root directory or under the public_html directory of your server and add this following code at the top of your existing htaccess code.

Options -Indexes

This will disable the directory listing feature of your server and anyone who tries to access a server directory that doesn’t have a index.html or index.php file will return a 403 Forbidden error. The above code will work for Apache as well as Lightspeed servers but if you have an nGinx server, contact your server admin to enable this on your website.

If you do not disable this feature in your website hackers can easily follow along with your directory structure and find out what exact files you have on your server and how they are arranged. This gives them an advantage of knowing your site perfectly. So, you must enable it. Folders like wp-content or wp-includes in WordPress sites contain sensitive data that isn’t required for everyone to see it. As you know, the wp-content folder contains your themes, plug-in, and media uploads. Hackers can find potential exploits by going through these files. So yes, in a way, you’re making the hacker’s job easy by not disabling directory browsing.

  1. Always keep your WordPress core, themes & plugins updated

Although it is true that updating WordPress core, theme or plugins may break your site sometimes but it only occurs for 0.001% of the website who uses badly coded themes and plugins. The reason things get broken after the update is that sometimes the developer of the theme you are using or some plugin in your site has stopped supporting and updating its code. So, when WordPress deprecate any function, those theme/plugins still tries to access it and end up having lots of PHP error.

I suggest using a backup system like UpdraftPlus Premium or BackupBuddy and creating a backup of your entire site before updating. In this way, if something bad can happen you can still restore back to your previous working version of you site. No matter what the case is, always keep your site updated with the latest version of WordPress, installed themes and plugins. Developer releases patch every other day to fix the vulnerabilities in their software as soon as they get spotted or notified.

  1. Limit Login Attempts

Hackers try to exploit weak password vulnerability by using scripts that enter different combinations until your website cracks. To prevent this, you can limit the number of failed login attempts per user.

For example, you can say after 5 failed attempts, lock the user out temporarily. If someone has more than 5 failed attempts, then your site block their IP for a temporary period of time based on your settings. You can make it 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 24 hours, and even longer.

  1. Disable XML-RPC in WordPress

Hackers are using the XML-RPC function in WordPress for DDoS botnet attacks as well as Brute Force attacks. The XML-RPC function was originally designed to be used an intranet notification system for WordPress users. But few use it anymore due to spam. In March 2014, Sucuri reported 162,000 sites being used in DDoS attacks without the site owner’s knowledge via security holes in XML-RPC.

The XML-RPC vulnerability escalated into active hacking via Brute Force attacks. I recommend to Input Code to your Theme to block XML-RPC to disable.

  1. Delete the unused or unnecessary themes & plugins

It’s easy for a hacker to target unused themes/plugins or things that are installed but disabled to get pass the security of your website by targeting the vulnerabilities in those themes and plugins. As these things are already disabled in your site, so you are not going to notice any prominent change in the code of those themes/plugins and hackers use this to their advantage. Also, many times when you install a plugin on your site and then disabled it over time the actual developer of that plugin stop updating that plugin and hackers use vulnerabilities within those old theme/plugins to hack your site. So, always keep the things that you actually use on your site, if there is a list of plugin and themes which are installed in your WordPress installation but you don’t use it, just DELETE them. Whether it is a theme or plugin that comes with the default installation of WordPress or something you have separately installed earlier. This same rule applies to them all. Only keep the things you need and get rid of the rest.

It’s the fact the biggest security hole in a WordPress site comes not from WordPress itself but from plugins and themes. For example, the TimThumb hack, which is the largest successful hack against WordPress sites to date, came from plugins and themes that packaged the TimThumb library in their code and not from WordPress itself.

 “Checkmarx’s research lab identified that more than 20% of the 50 most popular WordPress plugins are vulnerable to common Web attacks, such as SQL Injection”

  1. Secure your computers

 Keep your computer secure by acting on some of these rules:

  • Keep your OS and all programs updated
  • Install Anti-Virus software
  • Use personal firewalls
  • Open sites via HTTPS whenever possible
  • Use SSH or SFTP instead of FTP
  1. Use of plugins like Jetpack Protect filter

Some people think that Jetpack plugin is a very resource consuming plugin but let me tell you that all of you are wrong about this plugin. Jetpack is actually an amazing plugin that has been made for WordPress. The problem is that people use it in the wrong way and end up with a slow website and they point the finger to this plugin.

After installing Jetpack plugin most people just enable all the filters available within the plugin, which is not a good thing to do. Instead what you should do is go to Jetpack Settings in your WordPress dashboard and enable specifically those filters you truly need for your site and disable the rest.

But don’t forget to enable the “Protect” filter of Jetpack as it will help your site from getting attacked by Brute Force attackers and also safeguard your site from fake login attempt. This is a really useful filter which will not only protect your site from hackers but also safeguard your site from server slow down due to multiple random requests by hackers.

  1. Use AdvancednoCaptechreCaptcha plugin

The Google noCaptchareCaptcha is the predecessor of the original Google reCaptcha (v1) which used to show up annoying illegible captchas to do a simple task. But noCaptchareCapcha doesn’t show any annoying captcha instead it just asks you to click a checkbox and if Google thinks that your IP is suspicious then it asks you to select some specific picture from a list of the picture. This is really great and makes solving captcha a painless process.

WordPress has an awesome plugin named Advanced noCaptchareCaptcha which will allow you to enable noCaptchareCaptcha in your WordPress login page, signup page and even in comment form which is great as now hacker bots cannot just keep trying to guess the proper login credential of your site because they can’t get pass the captcha.

Also as noCaptchareCaptcha is a Google project so you can trust that its fraud detection algorithm is up to date with latest hacking trends. I will suggest you enable this plugin for your comment form to which will not just reduce the number of your spam comment, but also save your site from hacker bots who try to do SQL injection via comment forms.

  1. Only use trusted themes and plugins

Always use or install themes or plugins from trusted websites because in most of the cases though provide completely built a free website, there is a high chance that those themes and plugin has malicious code which can compromise your website security. If you are installing free themes or plugins, only install them through your WordPress plugin installer or download them from WordPress plugin repository.

  1. Set the proper permission for files and folders

Always set proper and right permissions for example If you have cPanel access log in to your file manager and make sure all the files of your site has permission set to 644 and all the directories have permission set to 755 unless some plugin especially asks you to set some special permission to some special folders. Like some cache plugin asks users to set the permission to /wp-contents/cache/ folder to 777. These are an exceptional case, but for rest of the file follow the above permission structure.

  • Folders: 755
  • Files: 644
  • wp-config.php: 444


  • find /wordpress -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
  • find /wordpress -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;


You can remain safe if you follow my tips that I’ve described above besides installing a bunch of plugins and slow down your site for no good reason ever. Think again before you choose cheap hosting services like GoDaddy, Bluehost, Hostgatore, JustHost, Hostdime etc. These companies sell hosting at an extremely cheap price. But you may end up having a slow and unsecured hosting experience.

Securing a WordPress site is not as easy task it’s much more than installing a security plugin and walking away. It needs to fill out a complete strategy. Some you might’ve known about before but it is my hope that some were new discoveries. Sometimes, it’s the simple things you haven’t thought of yet that spell the difference between a mediocre security strategy and a great one.


Hacking of Your Car Is Possible on Android Phones

We are now living in an era of being connected to the internet or via wireless technology. From smartphones to cars, manufacturers are rushing to connect mobile phones and vehicles to perform various functions like driverless cars and so on. Meanwhile, some mobile apps are now able to summon vehicles just as we have seen in Knight Rider. With the advancement of technology comes the danger – these phones can be hacked and when hackers can launch terror or hijack vehicles with ease.

A test has been conducted on at least nine vehicles built by seven companies that are connected with Android apps and they are all vulnerable to attacks. Researchers from Kaspersky, a software security firm, confirmed that most mobile apps, which have been downloaded over a million times, do not even have basic software defence system for drivers to protect themselves in case of an attack. Hackers can root a phone or trick users into installing malicious malware code, unlock the vehicle and start the ignition key.

The Ignition Remix

As of today, researchers have refused to name specific mobile apps that they tested over the fear that their publication would help car thieves. However, they argue their studies should make the car industry take to consider car security in a serious manner.  It is time connected car application developers treat their products just like banking apps, according to Kaspersky lead researcher Viktor Chebyshev.

In the worst-case scenario, researchers have found that hacker can access to locked vehicles; vehicle thieves would require other tricks for more serious attacks, like controlling the key or maybe disabling the vehicles’ immobiliser, which is a system that prevents vehicles from being stolen. They found that Tesla’s cars which permit a car to be driven via smartphone app only is an excellent example of how hacking a mobile phone can lead to theft, even though Tesla cars were not a part of their research.

The security experts’ analyses are based on the mobile apps themselves—they only ‘hacked’ into one of the affected vehicle models in question. And, they claim that there was no need for injecting Android malware to pull off the dirty tricks thieves or terrorists can pull to cause damage. They also warned that poorly built apps that lacked proper coding are vulnerable to vehicle thieves and they highlighted a case in which hacker forums are showing interest in hacking of apps-connected vehicles. They clearly display offers to buy & sell connected vehicle app credentials including their usernames and passwords, shockingly even PIN numbers and the unique Vehicle Identification Numbers (VINs) of different vehicles. The usual rate runs into hundreds of dollars per such account. Chebyshev said that cybercriminals are preparing for such attacks and the vehicle industry should take notice of these online activities.

The Kaspersky security researchers have highlighted three techniques for exploiting Android applications they tested. (iOS is much more difficult for hackers to attack). They found that, except one app, stored the apps username, password, or both in unencrypted manner in the mobile device’s storage. And, when rooting the victim’s mobile phone —by exploiting full privileges in the phone’s OS —an expert hacker can get access to those stored account login details and send them off to his command-and-control server. Hackers could also trick vehicle owners into downloading an altered/hacked versions of car apps in order to steal login details. Alternatively, car thieves can infect mobile phones with malwares that can launch an “overlay” attack: When the car-app starts, the malware could immediately detect that it is loading and it can preempt it with some fake user interface and the steals the details and transfer the same to some remote location. A hacker may also infect the app with multiple overlays in order to spoof off any connected car app the innocent victim may load.

Time to Buckle Up

The security experts also said that they have reported their findings to several companies whose cars are highly vulnerable. However, they noted that most problems are not even security bugs, so much as a lack of proper safeguards. Encrypting the login credentials stored on a mobile device, adding two-stage authentication or maybe a fingerprint authentication, or maybe creating integrity checks in the apps could work to prevent malicious code from being injected into the apps.

This is not the first time makers of app connected cars are facing safeguards issues in their products. Toyota, Nissan,and Ford has also been vulnerable to hacking. It is also important to note that the problem is not solely confined to phones using Android system. Security expert Samy Kamkar, back in 2015, explained how he could deploy a tiny piece of hardware hidden on a vehicle to intercept login credentials from apps based on iOS like Onstar (GM), UConnect (Chrysler), mbrace (Mercedes-Benz) and Remote (BMW) — all via wirelessly. Kamkar’s hacking method also allowed him to locate a car from a remote location, unlock it, and in some cases start the ignition. In such attack, he said there won’t be “no warnings” and your car credentials would be easily stolen and reused by the hacker “without phone modifications” while comparing his attack method with the one conducted by Android hackers as suggested by security experts at Kaspersky.

As connected vehicles are gaining huge interest among buyers, researchers at Kaspersky said manufacturers must be able to lock down mobile apps that could control their products even as both ethical malware testers and criminal hackers gear up to find flows in their systems. It may be better if we can open the car door without ever triggering the car alarm, however these functionalities are just being explored, said Kaspersky lead researcher Mikhail Kuzin, adding car makers “will have to add new security features to make users lives more convenient and at the same time prevent attacks”. It’s time app makers and car makers take utmost care in security issues, and do it right.